Italian Meal Courses, Menus & How to Order in Italy!
Knowing the courses and flow of a typical Italian meal makes eating your way across Italy every bit the foodie experience dreams are made of.
What comes to mind when you think of Italian food? Pizza? Spaghetti? Gelato? How about antipasti, primi, secondi, contorni, and dolci five typical courses of an authentic Italian meal? Despite the popularity of Italian food around the world, it can be jarring for tourists to face that first menu in an Italian restaurant in Italy. First, there’s the language barrier, and what are all those courses? Must one order from each course?
In short, no you do not have to order from every course on alla carta menus in Italy (first menu photo below) which offer individually priced dishes. Degustazione menus (second menu photo) however are price-fixed tasting menus with options to choose (scelta) from.
Italian Meal Courses
Menus in Italy are broken down into sections by course to replicate the flow of a traditional Italian meal. Typically, each course is served in the order it appears on the menu from antipasto moving on through primi, secondi, contorni, and finally dolci. Many restaurants offer additional courses including aperitivo, insalata, formaggio, frutta, caffè, digestivo, and although not officially a course, a favorite across Italy tagliere! Each course of an Italian meal is detailed below with examples, photo galleries, and curated videos.
From the Latin ‘aperitivi’ meaning ‘opener’ an aperitivo (singular form) marks two occasions as a pre-dinner drink in Italy. A happy hour drink with snacks enjoyed before going to dinner, or a drink served to stimulate the appetite at the start of dinner.
Rather than list aperitivi on the menu, some restaurants in Italy offer customers a complimentary glass of Prosecco to locals as a treat before the meal. As a stand-alone happy hour drink, an aperitivo is typically a vermouth-driven cocktail like a Spritz, Americano, Negroni, or simply a glass of wine, beer, or bubbly.
Aperitivi became a tradition in Italy thanks to distiller and marketing genius Antonio Benedetto Carpano. After creating one of the first types of vermouth in Torino in 1786 Mr. Carpano claimed his mixture of muscatel, herbs, and spices stimulated the appetite and thus the aperitivo was born.
As with most of the informational videos in Italian curated here on ALOR Italy, turn closed captioning on in English to learn more about vermouth and aperitivi in Italy!
Next up is antipasti, the Italian course most often confused with aperitivo. Not only are they similar words in length and letters, but meeting friends for an aperitivo at a bar after work means getting snacks. It’s no wonder the two get confused.
Antipasti, Italian Meal Course
Antipasto (singular form) is the beginning of the meal. Similar to hors d’oeuvres, antipasti are small portions of delicious bites to ignite the appetite, not fill the stomach. My favorite antipasti are from Locanda in Cannubi in Barolo, Italy.
Their La Langa al piatto (the Langa on a plate) is a collection of five classic antipasti from the region. Pictured below they include vitello tonnato (veal with a tuna sauce), peperone ripieno (red peppers filled with tuna), battuta di vitello al coltello (raw veal cut by knife), acciughe al verde (anchovies in green), and finally tonno di coniglio (rabbit tuna, a cold salad of rabbit).
While Locanda in Cannubi assembles the best hits of antipasti from La Langhe on one plate, many of these delicacies can be found individually across Northern, Italy the region I now call home. Here’s a quick look at a few typical antipasti dishes in Italy.
Primi, the Second Dish in the Italian Meal Structure
Il primo (the first course) is understandably confusing for tourists. While it’s the second dish after antipasti, primi are considered the first true course of a traditional Italian meal. Primi is carb central. This is where pasta lives on an Italian menu including Risotto, Gnocchi, and soups like Ribollita.
If a single plate is what you’re after, look to primi. However, portion sizes are relatively small compared to American pasta dishes. Here’s a gallery of primi dishes I’ve enjoyed that show typical portion sizes of pasta in Italy.
Secondi is the Third Italian Meal Course
Il Secondo is the second course or the main dish of a traditional Italian meal. Secondi are typically protein-forward dishes of meat, wild game, or fish. Secondi are the most expensive and largest courses on alla carta menus. Fortunate enough to be invited to someone’s home for dinner in Italy? Dress nice and expect a fuss unless you are specifically told dinner is informal. Save your appetite for the secondi as this is where your host is likely to put most of their time and effort into the meal.
English List of Italian Meat & Fish Names on Italian Menus
While carne means meat and pesce means fish in Italian, it’s helpful when reading a menu in Italy to know at least a few types of meat and fish by name. Here are 30 common meat and fish names on menus across Italy.
Fish Dishes in Italian
- Acciughe are anchovies a salt-preserved fish common in Northern Italian.
- Bottarga is salt-cured fish roe that is compressed and shaved or sliced onto eggs, vegetables, and pasta and it’s delicious!
- Branzino is seabass also called Spigola.
- Calamaro is squid.
- Capasante are sea scallops.
- Cozze are mussels.
- Gambero are shrimp.
- Merluzzo is Altantic cod.
- Ostrica is oyster and for a dozen the plural form is ostriche!
- Pesce spada is swordfish. Pesce spada affumicato (smoked swordfish) is one of my favorite Antipasti in Italy!
- Polpo in Italy means Octopus (both the animal and the meat) and is Paolo’s all-time favorite. If Polpo is on the menu, it’s soon on his plate.
- Seppia is cuttlefish a common seafood in Venice.
- Tonno means tuna both in the preserved canned form and in steak form (bistecca di tonno).
- Trota is trout and similar to tuna represents both the conserved and fresh forms.
- Last but not least is vongole which are clams, often seen as Spaghetti alle vongole!
Meat Dishes in Italian
- Anatra is duck.
- Cervo is venison.
- Cinghiale is wild boar, popular on menus in Tuscany.
- Frattaglie is offal, the entrails and internal organs of animals including cows, pigs, and chickens.
- Guanciale is cured pork jowl, the name comes from guancia the Italian word for ‘cheek’ something Italians really do pinch!
- Lardo is cured pork fat. While that might not sound delicious it is when sliced thin on melon as seen in the antipasto gallery above.
- Maiale means pork.
- Manzo is beef, mucca means cow, but when it comes to Italian cheese look for latte vaccino because vacca also means cow.
- Pancetta is the bacon of Italy
- Pecora is sheep in Italian. Sheep’s milk by the way makes for some of the best cheese in Italy!
- Prosciutto crudo is raw air-cured ham while Prosciutto cotto is cooked ham a popular pizza topping in Italy.
- Pollo is chicken.
- Salsicca means sausage.
- Tacchino is turkey.
- Vitello is veal.
Funny enough I’ve seen “oven-roasted kid” twice on English language menus in Italy. They mean lamb! Italian menus translated into English in Italy are frequently… just a bit off. Something that’s sure to make you laugh and put you at ease while ordering in Italy.
Contorni, the Vegetable Course of the Italian Meal
A friend visiting Italy commented “Italians never eat vegetables! It’s all pasta, meats, and cheese!” While that’s not true, the confusion is understandable. Savory side dishes and vegetables are their own course on Italian menus. Consequently, they are easy to overlook. You’ll find vegetables under Il Contorno or Contorni on Italian menus.
There are countless vegetable side dishes equally as famous as their pasta counterparts across Italy. Carciofi alla Giudia (Roman Jewish-style fried artichokes) are a must in Rome. Florence claims Panzanella. A salad that makes use of day-old bread and fresh summer tomatoes. While in Sicily and Naples Melanzane alla Parmigiana (Eggplant Parmigiana) is the star of the show. In the Piedmont region, vegetables take center stage with Bagna Cauda, a recipe I recently shared with Live in Italy Magazine.
Similar to secondi, knowing a few vegetable terms in Italian will go a long way to making menus in Italy easier to read. Even if you only watch the following Italian vegetables video a few times, I bet a few of your favorite vegetable names stick for your trip to Italy!
Formaggi, the Cheese Course of the Italian Meal
Italy is home to Chilometro Zero food (meaning no distance.) This Italian food philosophy is the belief that the best quality products come from as close as possible ensuring sustainable freshness, seasonality, and biodiversity. As a result ordering cheese in Italy, means getting to try local in season cheese. Cheese plates are perhaps the best example of Kilometer Zero food in Italy.
Taglieri, Meat & Cheese Boards of Italian Meals
While technically not an Italian meal course many restaurants in Italy list tagliere as an option on the menu. Trust me, if you like meats and cheeses you want this! Tagliere literally means cutting board in Italian. Italian restaurants use cutting boards as serving boards and pile them high with the best local meats and cheeses they can find or in many cases make in-house. Want to see what I’m drooling about as I type? Here is a tagliere gallery full of all-time favorite tagliere I’ve had the pleasure of sharing in Italy.
Insalata & Frutta Precede Desserts in the Italian Meal
Some restaurants list insalata (salad) and frutta (fruit) as separate courses. In Italy salads come after main and side dishes unlike in America where they start the meal. Look for Frutta (fruit) with cheese or dolci (dessert) on the menu. If the brevity of this section description sticks out to you, that’s because these are not the most popular Italian meal courses and many restaurants in Italy omit them.
Dolci, a Sweet Ending to the Italian Meal
Each region of Italy also has its own regional desserts. Venice is home to Tiramisu while the Piedmont region is famous for chocolate and panna cotta (sweetened cream thickened with gelatin.)
Yet, no region of Italy seems to love super sweet desserts more than Sicily. There’s Cannolo (fried wafers rolled and filled with fresh ricotta) Brioche con gelato (Brioche with Ice Cream) and the toothachingly sweet Cassata.
Sicily’s sweetest dessert? Cassata! A small light green liqueur-drenched sponge cake with sweetened ricotta, fruit preserves, and a marzipan shell decorated with candied fruit (pictured below).
If you’re craving Sorbetto (sorbet) or gelato (ice cream) look to the dolci (desserts) course.
Digestivi & Il Caffè
Italians really love coffee and often take an espresso after lunch or dinner, no matter the time. Surprising given dinner hour doesn’t really start in Italy until after 8:00! While Italians swear they have no trouble sleeping after a post-dinner espresso unaccustomed tourists who want a good night’s rest might instead opt for a digestivo.
Digestivi means digestive. Italians believe digestivo aid digestion. No doubt needed after so many courses!
Options are typically small pours of regional amari (Italian bitters). A grape brand infused with herbs, flowers, roots, citrus, or spices sweetened with sugar syrup and aged. The herbal nose and near medicinal taste is said to cure an upset stomach by accelerating digestion.
Be it Fernet Branca in Milan, Limoncello in Amalfi, Grappa in Piedmont, or Génépi here in the Italian Alps, each region of Italy has its own digestivo tradition.
Want the best of both after-dinner drink worlds? Try a Caffe Correcto as seen in this video clip with Lidia Bastianich and her Nonna!
The backbone of Italian culinary tradition dates back to Ancient Roman times when high-quality food cooked in abundance indicated success. Today the best way to experience a modern Italian feast as a tourist is to visit an Agriturismo in Italy where quality and quantity are both in abundance.
One of the most enjoyable parts of eating in Italy is the diversity of dishes unique to each region. Wherever you are eating rest assured, ordering nothing more than a single plate from an alla carta menu is perfectly acceptable if that’s all the appetite or budget you have. Plus, tipping in Italy is not expected. So larger orders do not equal larger wages for waiters. Armed with these facts and an understanding of Italian meal courses means leaving ordering anxiety at home.
Follow ALOR Italy for a little La Dolce Vita from Italy
- Antonio Benedetto Carpano
- Dinner Ends with Digestivo — Eataly.it
Hello. I have a tricky question and wonder whether you can help me. My wife and I will be visiting Italy this fall. For religious reasons, we don’t eat pork or milk and meat on the same plate. Can we order antipasti asking for cheese and vegetables only, or would this be thought of as rude? And for perhaps obvious reasons, we’d rather not explain why or say that we’re vegetarian (which we’re not). Do you have any wisdom? Thank you so much.
I’m happy to try and help. I’m hopeful you’ll find solutions wherever you go. It might help me suggest some regional options for you if you’re comfortable sharing what part of Italy you’ll be visiting. You can ask for dishes to come without cheese. Most of the time though, unless the pasta is focused on a cheese sauce, it’s only grated on top by request. Pasta is also separate from meat courses (secondi). Italians LOVE their cheese and often offer cheese plates so you can try their local cheeses. These plates will often come separate with nothing else on them. Don’t feel like you cannot ask for food that fits your dietary needs. Italians are big on hospitality in general. So they will want you to be happy. My Sister has a sulfate allergy and was pleasantly surprised when she came to visit. We had to ask a lot of questions because she can’t eat tomatoes out of a can. Imagine that question in Italy! If you’re comfortable sharing your travel destinations I can provide some addition insight.
Thanks for your reply, and for your encouragement. It’s not the cheese, though. We love cheese. We don’t eat pork or meat with the cheese, and we don’t want to get stuck in a discussion of our cultural roots. But to answer your question, we’ll be using Florence and Bologna for themselves and for day trips to places like Siena and Lucca in Tuscany or Ferrara, ,Modena, etc
I certainly can understand not wanting to get stuck talking religion while hungry (or really anytime with strangers). Since I don’t share the same food restrictions, I don’t have a deep library of dishes I can recommend but here are a few thoughts.
If a pasta is made with eggs, it’s listed because it’s not as common and often believed to be a richer pasta. So many pasta and meat sauce combinations will work.
Especially given where you are headed because Tuscany has a lot of pasta with meat sauces in general. My favorite being wild boar ragu or cinghiale. It’s rather untraditional to add dairy. You’ll be offered grated cheese to put over the top after BUT that’s mostly for tourists. Italians don’t put cheese on nearly as much pasta as restaurants outside Italy serve. It’s perfectly acceptable and absolutely respectable to say “No grazie va bene così” No thanks, that’s okay or even a simple, pleasant “No grazie” with a smile and you’ll be good!
Also look for polenta with meat sauces if your concerned. Polenta is usually made with water in Italy.
The sauce to skip in Bologna would be bolognese because it is made with meat and milk.
Ferrara and Modena have a shared list of delicious dishes but you’re right to be concerned because many have pork like Tortellini in brodo and Gnocchi Fritto. Knowing you do not eat meat and cheese together it’s helpful to know that another favorite in that region Pasticcio di maccheroni has a bechamel sauce over meat. So avoid those. If you’d like a meat dish look for Spezzatino di Manzo which is an Italian beef stew.
While it might sound like there are not any options left, there are! You can try regional flans that change by the season. Cappellacci is a pasta shape that is also most often prepared with a vegetable filling like pumpkin and it’s delicious. Regional cheese plates make for a decedent treat and are a must everywhere in Italy. My Sister kept saying she just wanted to “cheese her way across Italy. Plus there are dishes like erbazzone which is a savory pie of greens and cheese.
A simple pizza bufala is like a margherita but on another level because it has Buffalo mozzarella.
I’ll continue to do a little research and thinking and if I can come up with more ideas that I believe would help I’ll reach out!
hello good day, please im a chef in a hotel in Nigeria and im expecting so italian guest so im trying to learn some itlian menu so i can serve them better when they arrive Nigeria i need help with basic italin food thank you .
Hi Jimmy! How wonderful. I bet your guests will want to try your Nigerian cuisine while they are there (I know I would!) How are a few simple dishes to consider for Italian cuisine.
Gnocchi is a classic and can be made with several different types of root vegetables like potatoes and squash. They take a little work but few ingredients so you can try a few batches to get the hang of it. Sauces can be very simple from butter and herbs to a tomato sautéed https://www.lacucinaitaliana.com/amp/italian-food/how-to-cook/gnocchi-the-basic-recipe-and-our-favorite-varieties
Italians love vegetable. Their approach is usually very simple. Get the best quality vegetable for the season and cook it the best way possible to let it’s taste shine. So if you offer your local vegetables cooked simply they will likely love them as their “Contorni” dish.
Italians from Northern Italy also eat a lot of rice. Typically they have Risotto where the rice is cooked slowly adding warm water half a cup at a time until it absorbs until the rice is done. It might be fun to take Jollof rice and give it twist give it a vegetable Italians know that you have locally like eggplant.
If you’re comfortable with pastas I believe you could try a stuffed ravioli with local spinach and Wara.
Italians also value the “off cuts” and many love dishes with beef, tripe, and beef liver. So a stew could be a hit! If you want examples look for recipes like this https://www.lacucinaitaliana.com/amp/italian-food/italian-dishes/trippa-alla-romana-braised-tripe-recipe
An offer of coffee with a digestivo (after dinner drink of Ògógóró would be perfect. Italians LOCE trying local drinks.)
Wonderful and very helpful post. Thank you!
Thank you Melanie! Are you coming to Italy in a trip soon?
I really hope this guide becomes popular! It’s so comprehensive!
Thank you! I do my best and since it’s such a fun topic I love doing it.
It’s obvious that you love it!
Another thorough post! At my old job working at a research center and affiliated hospital in Italy, it always annoyed me that I never got my “full metal’s worth” at the canteen. Of course, their offerings were nothing like a fancy Italian meal, but we had to pick one primo, one secondo, one contorno and frutta o yogurt. Because the secondi were always meat, I usually ended up eating pasta, carrots or spinach (the variety! 🙃), and then I’d get a yogurt. It was so frustrating because they wouldn’t allow me to have two contorni or two primi to make up for the part I had to skip because of meat! Thankfully, my new workplace is so much more accommodating and I never leave hungry! The lunch lady knows I’m vegetarian and she’s always like “non carne” whenever she sees me 😂